The Russian Front 1941-1945 episode 2: The Battle of Stalingrad was a brutal military campaign between Russian forces and those of Nazi Germany and the Axis powers during World War II. The battle is infamous as one of the largest, longest and bloodiest engagements in modern warfare: From August 1942 through February 1943, more than two million troops fought in close quarters – and nearly two million people were killed or injured in the fighting, including tens of thousands of Russian civilians. But the Battle of Stalingrad ultimately turned the tide of World War II in favor of the Allied forces. This episode covers the terrible events of 1942, from the doomed attempt to capture Moscow to the high water mark of Hitler’s encirclement of Stalingrad.
The Battle of Stalingrad was one of the bloodiest battles of World War II. It is estimated that over 1 million people were killed or wounded during the battle, including both military personnel and civilians. The intense and brutal fighting, combined with the harsh winter weather, made conditions extremely difficult for both sides. Many soldiers and civilians suffered from disease, exposure, and other hardships during the battle. Despite the terrible losses, the Soviet Union’s victory at Stalingrad was a major turning point in the war and ultimately helped to bring about the Allied victory.
The Russian Front was fought between the Soviet Union and Germany, along with other Axis powers, including Romania, Finland, and Italy. The Russian Front was characterized by some of the largest and deadliest battles of the war, including the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kursk. The front was also marked by extreme hardship, with the harsh Russian winter taking a heavy toll on both sides. Ultimately, the Soviet Union emerged victorious on the Russian Front, thanks in part to the determination and resilience of the Soviet people.
The Russian Front chronicles the war between the Soviet Union and Germany that began on June 22, 1941, when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, and ended with a Soviet assault on Berlin in April 1945. More combatants were killed on the Eastern Front than in all other theaters of World War II combined. The war on the Russian Front was a bitter, deadly struggle, triumphant for the Nazis at first, but eventually proving to be their downfall. Among the military campaigns examined is the brutal battle for Stalingrad in 1942, in which the Red Army lost more than 1 million men in defense of the city, and the engagement at Kursk in July 1943 involving 1 million men and 2,700 tanks.
Relive campaign by campaign and battle by battle the bloody war between Nazi Germany and the Red Army of the Soviet Union. Featuring rare archive footage from the front, this fascinating series retells a story of barbarism, heroism, self-sacrifice, patriotism, despair, and triumph. An epic history of war and warfare, it is also the story of ordinary soldiers on both sides who found themselves fighting to the death in an unimaginably harsh and brutal war.
Professor John Erickson, the award-winning author of “Road to Stalingrad” and “Road to Berlin” reassesses the titanic struggle between Hitler and Stalin on the Eastern Front. Series features rare archive footage from both Russian and German sources, informative graphics and maps, and incisive commentary and analysis by Professor John Erickson.
The Russian Front 1941-1945 episode 2
The Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II. It was a brutal and intense battle that lasted from July 1942 to February 1943, and it ended with the Soviet Union’s victory over the Axis powers. The battle was fought in and around the city of Stalingrad (present-day Volgograd), which was a major industrial center and transportation hub in the Soviet Union. The battle began when German and Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union, with the goal of capturing Stalingrad and advancing further into Soviet territory. The Soviet forces, aided by reinforcements from other parts of the country, fought fiercely to defend the city and eventually succeeded in pushing the Germans back.
The fighting was intense and often close-quarters, with soldiers on both sides enduring terrible conditions. In the end, the Soviet Union’s superior numbers and determination allowed them to emerge victorious, dealing a major blow to the German war effort and effectively ending their advance into the Soviet Union. The Battle of Stalingrad is considered one of the bloodiest and most significant battles of World War II, and it remains an important moment in Russian history.
By the spring of 1942, despite the failure of Operation Barbarossa to decisively defeat the Soviet Union in a single campaign, the Wehrmacht had captured vast expanses of territory, including Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic republics. On the Western Front, Germany held most of Europe, the U-boat offensive in the Atlantic was holding American support at bay, and Erwin Rommel had just captured Tobruk. In the east, the Germans had stabilised a front running from Leningrad south to Rostov, with a number of minor salients. Hitler was confident that he could break the Red Army despite the heavy German losses west of Moscow in winter 1941–42, because Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had been unable to engage 65% of its infantry, which had meanwhile been rested and re-equipped. Neither Army Group North nor Army Group South had been particularly hard-pressed over the winter. Stalin was expecting the main thrust of the German summer attacks to be directed against Moscow again.
Hitler decided that Germany’s summer campaign in 1942 would be directed at the southern parts of the Soviet Union. The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were to destroy the industrial capacity of the city and to block the Volga River traffic connecting the Caucasus and Caspian Sea to central Russia, as the city is strategically located near a big bend of the Volga. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July. The capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend-Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust, the systematic extermination of millions of Jews and other minority groups. Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the deaths of millions of people, including civilians and members of the military, and were ultimately defeated by the Allied powers in 1945. Hitler committed suicide in April of that year.
Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn in Austria-Hungary and was raised near Linz. He lived in Vienna later in the first decade of the 1900s and moved to Germany in 1913. He was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers’ Party (DAP), the precursor of the Nazi Party, and was appointed leader of the Nazi Party in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize governmental power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned with a sentence of five years. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). After his early release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By November 1932, the Nazi Party held the most seats in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority. As a result, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. The former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933 which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism. On 2 August 1934, Hindenburg died and Hitler replaced him as the head of state and government. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which initially gave him significant popular support.
Joseph Stalin was a Soviet politician who served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin rose to power in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and played a key role in the history of the Soviet Union. He was a ruthless and authoritarian leader who is responsible for the deaths of millions of people through political repression, forced collectivization, and other policies. Stalin’s rule is associated with the Great Purge, in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed or imprisoned, and with the widespread famine that occurred in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Despite his brutal tactics, Stalin was able to maintain his grip on power until his death in 1953.
Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin attended the Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary before joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He edited the party’s newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin’s Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles to Siberia. After the Bolsheviks seized power in the October Revolution and created a one-party state under the new Communist Party in 1917, Stalin joined its governing Politburo. Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union’s establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin’s death in 1924. Under Stalin, socialism in one country became a central tenet of the party’s ideology. As a result of his Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisation, creating a centralised command economy. Severe disruptions to food production contributed to the famine of 1930–33 that killed millions. To eradicate accused “enemies of the working class”, Stalin instituted the Great Purge, in which over a million were imprisoned, largely in the Gulag system of forced labour camps, and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had absolute control over the party and government.
Stalin promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, his regime signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial catastrophes, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German invasion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. Amid the war, the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and Bessarabia and North Bukovina, subsequently establishing Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and in parts of East Asia. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as global superpowers and entered a period of tension, the Cold War. Stalin presided over the Soviet post-war reconstruction and its development of an atomic bomb in 1949. During these years, the country experienced another major famine and an antisemitic campaign that culminated in the doctors’ plot. After Stalin’s death in 1953, he was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who subsequently denounced his rule and initiated the de-Stalinisation of Soviet society.